Hydropower can be considered a derivative form of solar energy, as it is closely linked to the rainfalls regime, to the ablation of the glaciers and in general to the water cycle.
From a physical point of view, this technology takes advantage of the potential energy of water that converted into kinetic energy can be exploited to power turbines equipped with an electric generator. In the mountain regions is exploited the difference in height between the collection basin at the top and the positioning of the turbine at a lower level. To exploit the hydrostatic pressure, the pipe that conducts the water from the collecting basin to the turbine is usually a closed type (tubing) or extracted from an underground tunnel. Hydropower can also have other applications, not just mountain ones. In fact, unlike what is commonly imagined, a hydroelectric system does not always require high waterfalls and large masses of water. A further advantage of this technology is the availability on command: the collection basin acts as an "electric battery" or accumulator, from which it is possible to withdraw energy when it is really needed.
Types of hydroelectric systems
Regulated discharge systems.
They are systems with a natural (lakes) or artificial reservoir, are the most widespread, but having a significant environmental impact, as the capacity of the basin is increased with the raising of barriers (dams). Generally these power plants are more than 10 MW of power.
Flowing water systems.
Installations inserted in water pipes.
In particular, micro-hydro is an interesting system for recovering energy on a small scale and includes systems below 100kW of power. With small differences in height and minimum flow rates it is possible to obtain energy. Systems have reduced sizes and are easy to install. The advantage of these very small systems is the unnecessary authorization to take water away and a non-existent environmental impact.
Finenergy proposes micro power systems that produce electricity. The current regulation (DL No. 387 of 29/12/03 of its changes and additions) encourages the production of energy from renewable sources also economically extending the duration of the green certificates for hydroelectric systems for 8 years. Being energy production headquarters from renewable sources, they take advantage of state incentives, becoming excellent investments also for the business purpose.
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